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Results 25 resources
Card, D. (2011). Origins of the Unemployment Rate: The Lasting Legacy of Measurement without Theory. American Economic Review, 101, 552–557.
The modern definition of unemployment emerged in the late 1930s from research conducted at the Works Progress Administration and the Census Bureau. According to this definition, people who are not working but actively searching for work are counted as unemployed. This concept was first used in the Enumerative Check Census, a follow-up sample for the 1937 Census of Unemployment, and continued with the Monthly Report on the Labor Force survey, begun in December 1939 by the Works Progress Administration. A similar definition is now used to measure unemployment around the world.
Card, D. (2022). Design-Based Research in Empirical Microeconomics. American Economic Review, 112, 1773–1781.
I briefly review the emergence of "design-based" research methods in labor economics in the 1980s and early 1990s. These methods were seen as a partial solution to the problems of credible inference identified by Ashenfelter (1974), Leamer (1978), Hendry (1980), and others. Designed-based studies typically use a simplified one-equation model of the outcome of interestâ€”in contrast to model-based studies that specify a data generating process for all factors determining the outcome. I discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses of the design-based approach and the value of such research in the field.
Card, D. (1990). Strikes and Bargaining: A Survey of the Recent Empirical Literature. American Economic Review, 80, 410–415.
Card, D. (1990). Unexpected Inflation, Real Wages, and Employment Determination in Union Contracts. American Economic Review, 80, 669–688.
This paper examines the effect of nominal contracting provisions on employment determination in union contracts. In most contracts, the nominal wage rate is wholly or partially predetermined. Real wage rates therefore contain unanticipated components that reflect unexpected price changes and the degree of indexation. The empirical analysis, based on a large sample of indexed and nonindexed contracts, suggests that unexpected real wage changes are associated with systematic employment responses in the opposite direction. The author concludes that nominal contracting provisions play a potentially important role in the cyclical properties and persistence of employment movements in the union sector. Copyright 1990 by American Economic Association.
I discuss the recent literature that has led to new interest in the idea of monopsonistic wage setting. Building on advances in search theory and in models of differentiated products, researchers have used a number of different strategies to identify the elasticity of firm-specific labor supply. A growing consensus is that firms have some wage-setting power, though many questions remain about the sources of that power.
Card, D. (1986). Efficient Contracts with Costly Adjustment: Short-run Employment Determination for Airline Mechanics. American Economic Review, 76, 1045–1071.
This paper presents an empirical analysis of firm-specific employment and wage outcomes for mechanics in the domestic airlines industry. A dynamic contracting model is presented that incorporates both costly employment adjustment and potential gaps between contract wage rates and the opportunity value of workers' time. The model gives a useful description of the employment-output linkage in the data, but is less successful in capturing the dynamic relation between employment, contract wage rates, and wage rates outside the airline industry. Copyright 1986 by American Economic Association.
Ashenfelter, O., & Card, D. (2002). Did the Elimination of Mandatory Retirement Affect Faculty Retirement? American Economic Review, 92, 957–980.
A special exemption from the 1986 Age Discrimination Act allowed colleges and universities to enforce mandatory retirement of faculty at age 70 until 1994. We construct a survey that permits us to compare faculty turnover rates before and after the law changed at a large sample of institutions with defined contribution pension plans. After the elimination of compulsory retirement the retirement rates of 70- and 71-year-olds fell by two-thirds and were comparable to rates of 69-year-olds. These findings indicate that U.S. colleges and universities will experience a rise in the number of older faculty over the coming years. (JEL J26, I21)
Card, D., & DiNardo, J. (2000). Do Immigrant Inflows Lead to Native Outflows? American Economic Review, 90, 360–367.
Card, D., & Giuliano, L. (2016). Can Tracking Raise the Test Scores of High-Ability Minority Students? American Economic Review, 106, 2783–2816.
We evaluate a tracking program in a large urban district where schools with at least one gifted fourth grader create a separate "gifted/high achiever" classroom. Most seats are filled by non-gifted high achievers, ranked by previous-year test scores. We study the program's effects on the high achievers using (i) a rank-based regression discontinuity design, and (ii) a between-school/cohort analysis. We find significant effects that are concentrated among black and Hispanic participants. Minorities gain 0.5 standard deviation units in fourth-grade reading and math scores, with persistent gains through sixth grade. We find no evidence of negative or positive spillovers on nonparticipants.
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